COLLECTION AND RECORDING OF MUSICAL FOLKLORE

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The work of collecting folk songs and folklore material in general must be put on a strictly scientific basis. The songs must not be divorced from that whole domestic setting, from the customs and rites which are performed by the people with them. Along with the collection of melodies and

For example, the wedding songs and dances should be accompanied by a detailed description of the entire wedding rite and an indication of at what point in that rite a particular song is performed or a particular chorus. Similarly, the lyrics, melodies and possibly the dance steps of the Lazarus, Christmas, Midsummer or Mardi Gras songs should not be divorced from the domestic setting, myth, ritual, game or custom, which they often serve as a decorative motif. This is necessary because the form, content, style and character of the song are determined by the form, content, style and character of the rite, game or custom which accompanies it. The folklorist must not forget for a moment that in folk minds the musical arts have not yet quite divorced themselves from their original source, the rite, the work, the cult, with which they form a syncretic whole, and that the subject of folk-music studies cannot be the melodies of songs alone.

There are songs which are true musical-dramatic miniatures in which the theatrical element occupies an important place and in which melody, text, fable, dance steps, symbolic movements and dramatic action form an indivisible whole combining several musical arts: poetry, music, dance, theatre. All these elements contribute to clarifying the origin and essence, the style and character of the musical form, and should therefore not be neglected by the musical folklorist, but should be recorded most carefully. Research work on folk songs will be incomplete and one-sided if their melodies are considered in isolation, for their own sake.

In general, for each song download, as much informative data as possible must be supplied to the researcher (who follows in the footsteps of the recorded): sources, vital data on singers, choro players and performers in general, on environment, setting, costumes, commonness, etc. Therefore, the phonograph, resp. the tape recorder, the camera and the film camera are necessary aids and companions for every collector of musical and dance folklore.

It is desirable to adopt a common method of collecting, recording and arranging, or classifying, musical folklore, a method that is the same for all specialists, who will thus be able to follow closely the work of their colleagues from other countries and institutes and will not waste time in wandering, hesitating, repeating mistakes, etc.

People's minds are gathered locally. Their study is usually done through surveys. Folk singers, instrumental performers and players are asked a series of pre-prepared questions aimed at discovering the essential features of local musical works. Such questions may be addressed not only to the performer but also to various folk music and folk dance enthusiasts.

For musical folkloristics, all folk compositions that have a close or distant connection with music are of interest: historical, household, ritual, work or religious songs, worker's, jailer's, soldier's, factory, craft, family, children's, game, choral, lullaby, feast, table, hymn and shouts of various vendors, all kinds of instrumental and dance tunes, tunes, whistles, etc. Particular care should be taken to collect the old songs, dances and rites which are gradually disappearing.

The selection of good singers, instrumental and dance performers is of great importance to the researcher, since through them he can not only get hold of the best repertoire but also pick out the most interesting variants. Finding good performers is not always an easy task. It presupposes a certain experience of the recorder and requires prior preparation and personal contact with the singers and the population.

In ethnographic museums and institutes for musical folklore and for musical ethnographic folklore research. Survey data are recorded on special sheets, which are then sorted and filed alphabetically.

Related:

- MUSICAL FOLKLORISTICS AND OTHER MUSICAL SCIENCES

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